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Dialysis-Requiring Acute Kidney Injuries on the Rise

THURSDAY, Dec. 13 (HealthDay News) -- From 2000 to 2009, the incidence of dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury (AKI) and resulting deaths increased considerably, according to research published online Dec. 6 in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

Raymond K. Hsu, M.D., of the University of California in San Francisco, and colleagues used data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample dataset to identify cases of AKI requiring dialysis to describe the population epidemiology of AKI in the United States.

From 2000 to 2009, the researchers found that the incidence of dialysis-requiring AKI cases increased from 222 to 533 cases per million person-years, representing an average 10 percent increase per year (incidence rate ratio, 1.10), with increased incidence linked to older age, male sex, and black race. The increase was seen across all age, sex, and race subgroups. About one-third of the observed increase was attributable to changes in the demographics of the population as well as trends in sepsis, acute heart failure, and receipt of cardiac catheterization and mechanical ventilation. During the same period, the total number of deaths associated with dialysis-requiring AKI increased from 18,000 to 39,000.

"Accurately defining the population incidence of AKI allows the medical and lay communities to appreciate the true public health burden of AKI," the authors write. "More research is needed to address reasons for underlying disparities among sex, age, and racial groups and causes behind the rapid increase in the incidence of dialysis-requiring AKI."

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