Varicella (chickenpox) is a very common childhood disease. It is usually mild, but can be serious, especially in young infants and adults. Varicella, a disease is caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV), a form of the herpes virus, is a highly contagious virus that is spread from person-to-person through the air or by contacting the fluid from the blisters caused by the virus. Chickenpox causes a blistering itching rash (pox), fever, and fatigue. It can lead to more serious illness including severe skin infection, scars, pneumonia, brain damage, and death.
By adulthood, more than 95 percent of Americans have had chickenpox. Chickenpox most commonly occurs in children between the ages of 5 and 9, but in the US, chickenpox is most common in children between the ages of 1 and 4. This difference can be linked to the proportion of children in this age group who are in daycare.
Immunization with the chickenpox vaccine can prevent chickenpox in most people. If a person contracts chickenpox after getting the vaccine, they will usually have a very mild case.
Since 1995, a chickenpox vaccine has been available for children 12 months of age and older. Adolescents and adults who have never had chickenpox can also get the vaccine. The vaccine has proven very effective in preventing severe chickenpox. The CDC Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the American Academy of Family Physicians recommend that all children be vaccinated with the chickenpox vaccine between 12 and 18 months of age.
Many schools now require vaccination prior to entry into preschool or public schools. Two doses are recommended for children over 13 who are getting the vaccine for the first time. Catch-up immunization may be given as needed between the ages of 7 to 18 years.
Children who are sick or have a fever should wait until they are well to receive the chickenpox vaccine. Some children should not receive the chickenpox vaccine. These include those children who have ever had an allergic reaction to gelatin, the antibiotic neomycin, and those who have had a previous reaction to chickenpox vaccine (in children over age 13 who need two doses). Your child's physician will advise you on the vaccine in these and other situations.
A vaccine, like any medication, is capable of causing serious problems, such as severe allergic reactions. The risk of chickenpox vaccine causing serious harm or death is very small. Most people who get the chickenpox vaccine do not have any problems with it. Problems may include:
- soreness or swelling in the location where the shot was given
- mild rash, up to one month after vaccination
Other problems such as low blood count, pneumonia, seizures, and severe brain reactions are very rare. Experts are not sure whether these are caused by the chickenpox vaccine or not.
- Give your child aspirin-free pain reliever, as directed by your child's physician.
- An allergic reaction would most likely occur within a few minutes to a few hours of the shot. Signs of an allergic reaction may include difficulty breathing, wheezing, (squeaking sounds while breathing due to tight airways), weakness, fast heartbeat, hives, and paleness. Report these or any other unusual signs immediately to your child's physician.
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