Giardiasis is an infectious diarrheal disease caused by the parasite Giardia lamblia, which can be transmitted through oral-fecal contact and by water contaminated by feces. Travelers are cautioned against drinking any untreated water.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Giardia lamblia is one of the most common intestinal parasites in the world. It is most prevalent in developing countries, where infections are associated with poor sanitary conditions, poor water quality control, and overcrowding. However, giardia is also the most common causes of parasitic infection in the US.
Giardia lamblia is a major cause of waterborne outbreaks of diarrhea in the United States. It occurs primarily in areas where water supplies have become contaminated with feces from humans or, possibly, from animals. Outbreaks have occurred throughout the country.
The Giardia lamblia parasite lives in two stages:
- trophozoites - the active form inside the body
- cysts - the resting stage that enables the parasite to survive outside the body
Infection begins when the cysts are consumed through food or water. Stomach acid activates the cysts and the trophozoites are released. They become attached to the lining of the small intestine and reproduce. Cysts form in the lower intestines and are then passed in the feces.
The parasite may be directly transmitted from person to person by contact with infected feces, or indirectly, through consuming food and water contaminated with cyst-containing feces.
The following are the most common symptoms of giardiasis. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:
- explosive, watery, foul-smelling stools
- loss of appetite
- abdominal pain
- excessive gas
The time between infection and the onset of acute symptoms usually is from one to two weeks. Some infected people have very mild symptoms or no symptoms at all. The symptoms of giardiasis may resemble other gastrointestinal diseases. Consult a physician for diagnosis.
Giardiasis cannot be prevented, but the spread of it can be contained by practicing good personal hygiene, as well as proper hygiene when caring for those who may be infected with the parasite. When visiting in an area where giardiasis is known to exist:
- drink only boiled water or bottled carbonated water or drinks
- avoid ice and beverages made from tap water
- do not eat locally-grown uncooked or unpeeled fruits and vegetables
Positive diagnosis of giardiasis is made by microscopic identification of the parasite.
Giardiasis may be treated with medications prescribed by a physician. Specific treatment for giardiasis will be determined by your physician based on:
- your overall health and medical history
- extent of the disease
- your tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies
- expectations for the course of the disease
- your opinion or preference
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