Bell's palsy is an unexplained episode of facial muscle weakness or paralysis that begins suddenly and worsens over three to five days. This condition results from damage to the 7th (facial) cranial nerve, and pain and discomfort usually occurs on one side of the face or head.
It can strike anyone at any age, but it occurs most often in pregnant women, and people who have diabetes, influenza, a cold or another upper respiratory ailment. This nerve disorder affects about 40,000 US adults and children each year. Bell's palsy strikes men and woman equally. It is less common before age 15 or after age 60.
Bell's palsy is not considered permanent, but in rare cases it does not disappear. Currently, there is no known cure for Bell's palsy; however, recovery usually begins two weeks to six months from the onset of the symptoms. The majority of people with Bell's palsy recover full facial strength and expression.
The following are the most common symptoms of Bell's palsy. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:
- loss of feeling in the face
- loss of the sense of taste on the front two-thirds of the tongue
- hypersensitivity to sound in the affected ear
- inability to close the eye on the affected side of the face
- affects the muscles that control facial expressions such as smiling, squinting, blinking, or closing the eyelid
The symptoms of Bell's palsy may resemble other conditions or medical problems. Always consult your physician for a diagnosis.
A specific cause of Bell's palsy is unknown, however, it has been suggested that the disorder may be inherited. It also may be associated with:
- high blood pressure
- Lyme disease
- Guillain-Barré syndrome
- myasthenia gravis
One uniformly recommended treatment for Bell's palsy is protecting the eye from drying at nighttime or while working at a computer. Eye care, which may include eye drops during the day, ointment at bedtime, or a moisture chamber at night, helps to protect the cornea from scratching, which is crucial to the management of Bell's palsy.
Your physician will establish an appropriate treatment protocol for your condition based on the severity of your symptoms and your medical profile. Other treatment options include:
- steroid medications - to reduce inflammation
- antiviral medications - such as acyclovir
- analgesics or moist heat - to relieve pain
- physical therapy to stimulate the facial nerve
Some individuals may choose to use alternative therapies in the treatment of Bell's palsy. Such treatment may include:
- electrical stimulation
- biofeedback training
- vitamin therapy, including B12, B6, and the mineral zinc
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