The lymphatic system is part of the immune system, whose function is to fight disease and infections.
The lymphatic system includes:
lymph - fluid in which the lymphocyte cells are suspended.
lymph vessels - thin tubes that carry lymph fluid throughout the body.
lymphocytes - cells that fight infection and disease.
lymph nodes - bean-shaped organs, found in the underarm, groin, neck, and abdomen, that act as filters for the lymph fluid as it passes through them.
Non-Hodgkin disease is a type of lymphoma, which is a cancer in the lymphatic system. The American Cancer Society estimates that there will be 66,120 new cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in 2008. NHL is the third most common cancer in childhood.
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma causes the cells in the lymphatic system to abnormally reproduce, eventually causing tumors to grow. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma cells can also spread to other organs.
There are several types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which are classified by how quickly they spread.
The following are the most common symptoms of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:
- painless swelling of lymph nodes in neck, underarm, and groin
- night sweats
- weight loss
- itching of the skin
- recurring infections
The symptoms of non-Hodgkin lymphoma may resemble other blood disorders or medical problems, such as influenza or other infections. Always consult your physician for a diagnosis.
Suggested risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphomas include the following:
A risk factor is anything that may increase a person’s chance of developing a disease. It may be an activity, such as smoking, diet, family history, or many other things. Different diseases, including cancers, have different risk factors.
Although these factors can increase a person’s risk, they do not necessarily cause the disease. Some people with one or more risk factors never develop cancer, while others develop cancer and have no known risk factors.
But, knowing your risk factors to any disease can help to guide you into the appropriate actions, including changing behaviors and being clinically monitored for the disease.
- genetic disease of the immune system
- exposure to radiation
- exposure to chemicals such as benzene and herbicides
- organ transplantation
- infections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus (HTLV-1)
- infections with the parasite that causes malaria
- history of infectious mononucleosis (caused by an infection with the Epstein-Barr virus)
- Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) bacterium, which has been identified as a cause of stomach ulcers
No specific cause has been identified.
In addition to a complete medical history and physical examination, diagnostic procedures for non-Hodgkin lymphoma may include the following:
- additional blood tests and other evaluation procedures
- x-rays of the chest, bones, liver, and spleen - a diagnostic test which uses invisible electromagnetic energy beams to produce images of internal tissues, bones, and organs onto film.
- lymph node biopsy - a procedure performed to remove tissue or cells from the body for examination under a microscope.
- bone marrow aspiration and/or biopsy - a procedure that involves taking a small amount of bone marrow fluid (aspiration) and/or solid bone marrow tissue (called a core biopsy), usually from the hip bones, to be examined for the number, size, and maturity of blood cells and/or abnormal cells.
- lymphangiograms - x-rays of the lymphatic system.
- computed tomography scan (Also called a CT or CAT scan.) - a diagnostic imaging procedure that uses a combination of x-rays and computer technology to produce cross-sectional images (often called slices), both horizontally and vertically, of the body. A CT scan shows detailed images of any part of the body, including the bones, muscles, fat, and organs. CT scans are more detailed than general x-rays.
- ultrasound (Also called sonography.) - a diagnostic imaging technique which uses high-frequency sound waves and a computer to create images of blood vessels, tissues, and organs. Ultrasounds are used to view internal organs as they function, and to assess blood flow through various vessels.
- positron emission tomography (PET) - a type of nuclear medicine procedure. This means that a tiny amount of a radioactive substance, called a radionuclide (radiopharmaceutical or radioactive tracer), is used during the procedure to assist in the examination of the tissue under study. Specifically, PET studies evaluate the metabolism of a particular organ or tissue, so that information about the physiology (functionality) and anatomy (structure) of the organ or tissue is evaluated, as well as its biochemical properties. Thus, PET may detect biochemical changes in an organ or tissue that can identify the onset of a disease process before anatomical changes related to the disease can be seen with other imaging processes such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Specific treatment for non-Hodgkin lymphoma will be determined by your physician based on:
- your age, overall health, and medical history
- extent of the disease
- your tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies
- expectations for the course of the disease
- your opinion or preference
Treatment may include:
- radiation therapy
- biologic (immune) therapy or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation
- high-dose chemotherapy with bone marrow transplant or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation
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Online Resources of Hematology & Blood Disorders