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Skin foreign body

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First Aid - Removing a Splinter
First Aid - Removing a Splinter

Definition
  • A foreign body (e.g., splinter, fishhook, sliver of glass) is embedded in the skin.

Symptoms of a Foreign Body (FB) in the Skin

  • Pain: Most tiny slivers (e.g., cactus spine) in the superficial skin do not cause much pain. Deeper or perpendicular foreign bodies are usually painful to pressure. FBs in the foot are very painful with weight-bearing.
  • Foreign Body Sensation: Older children may report the sensation of something being in the skin. ("I feel something there")

 Types of Foreign Bodies

  • Wood-organic FBs: splinters, cactus spines, thorns, toothpicks
  • Metallic FBs: bullets, BBs, nails, sewing needles, pins, tacks
  • Fiberglass spicules
  • Fishhooks: May have a barbed point that makes removal difficult
  • Glass
  • Pencil lead-graphite
  • Plastic FBs
When to Call Your Doctor

Call Your Doctor Now (night or day) If
  • Deeply embedded FB (e.g., needle or toothpick in foot)
  • FB has a barb (e.g., fish hook)
  • FB is a BB
  • FB is causing severe pain
  • You are reluctant to take out FB
  • You can't remove the FB
  • Site of sliver removal looks infected (redness, red streaks, swollen, pus)
  • Fever occurs
Call Your Doctor Within 24 Hours (between 9 am and 4 pm) If
  • You think your child needs to be seen
  • Deep puncture wound and last tetanus shot was over 5 years ago
Call Your Doctor During Weekday Office Hours If
  • You have other questions or concerns
Parent Care at Home If
  • Tiny, superficial pain-free slivers that don't need removal
  • Tiny plant stickers, cactus spines or fiberglass spicules that need removal
  • Minor sliver, splinter or thorn that needs removal and you think you can remove it
HOME CARE ADVICE FOR MINOR SLIVERS

  1. Tiny, Pain-Free Slivers: If superficial slivers are numerous, tiny, and pain-free, they can be left in. Eventually they will work their way out with normal shedding of the skin or the body will reject them by forming a little pimple which will drain on its own.
  2. Tiny Painful Plant Stickers: Plant stickers (e.g., stinging nettle), cactus spines or fiberglass spicules are difficult to remove because they are fragile. Usually they break when pressure is applied with a tweezers.
    • Tape: First try to remove the small spines or spicules by touching the area lightly with packaging tape, duct tape or another very sticky tape. If that doesn't work, try wax hair remover.
    • Wax Hair Remover: If tape doesn't work, apply a layer of wax hair remover. Let it air dry for 5 minutes or accelerate the process with a hair dryer. Then peel it off with the spicules. Most will be removed. The others will usually work themselves out with normal shedding of the skin.
  3. Needle and Tweezers: For large slivers or thorns, remove with a needle and tweezers.
    • Check the tweezers beforehand to be certain the ends (pickups) meet exactly (if they do not, bend them). Sterilize the tools with rubbing alcohol.
    • Cleanse the skin surrounding the sliver briefly with rubbing alcohol before trying to remove it. If you don't have any, use soap and water but don't soak the area if foreign body is wood (Reason: can cause swelling of the splinter).
    • Use the needle to completely expose the large end of the sliver. Use good lighting. A magnifying glass may help.
    • Then grasp the end firmly with the tweezers and pull it out at the same angle that it went in. Getting a good grip the first time is especially important with slivers that go in perpendicular to the skin or those trapped under the fingernail.
    • For slivers under a fingernail, sometimes a wedge of the nail must be cut away with fine scissors to expose the end of the sliver.
    • Superficial horizontal slivers (where you can see all of it) usually can be removed by pulling on the end. If the end breaks off, open the skin with a sterile needle along the length of the sliver and flick it out.
  4. Antibiotic Ointment: Wash the area with soap and water before and after removal. Apply an antibiotic ointment to the area once after removal to reduce the risk of infection.
  5. Call Your Doctor If:
    • Can't get it all out
    • Removed, but pain becomes worse
    • Starts to look infected
    • Your child becomes worse

And remember, contact your doctor if your child develops any of the "Call Your Doctor" symptoms.

Disclaimer: This information is not intended be a substitute for professional medical advice. It is provided for educational purposes only. You assume full responsibility for how you choose to use this information.


Author and Senior Reviewer: Barton D. Schmitt, M.D.

Last Reviewed: 1/19/2009

Last Revised: 6/24/2008

Content Set: Pediatric HouseCalls Online

Copyright 1994-2009 Barton D. Schmitt, M.D.

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